构图进阶指南

构图进阶指南


Have you ever wondered why some pictures are more appealing than others . . .
你是不是曾经困惑于...


为什么有些图片比另外一些更有吸引力?



why some are left hanging in galleries for months or even years to be enjoyed by thousands?
为什么有些挂在画廊中的画经年累月地令数以千计的人陶醉?




Have you ever wondered why some photographers consistently win the praises of judges and critics?
你是不是曾经困惑于为什么有些摄影家总是赢得鉴赏家和评论家的赞赏?



One of the main reasons why some pictures are more outstanding than others is because of their strong composition. That's what this program is all about. We're going to consider how composition can improve your photographs.
为什么一些图片比另一些优秀,一个主要原因就是它们结实的构图。这就是本教程所要告诉你的。我们将要考虑怎样构图才能改善你的图片。



Good composition is a subject with a history of its own. The Greeks and Romans were practicing it 2,000 years before photography! It's obvious in their architecture.
好的结构是一个有着自己故事的主体。希腊人和罗马人在摄影术发明之前已经实践了2000年!这在他们的建筑中体现得很明显。



And today, composition continues as an important part of contemporary architecture. One definition for photographic composition is simple: the pleasing selection and arrangement of subjects within the picture area.
而且在今天,构成在当代建筑中继续担当着重要的角色。构图的一个简单定义是:图片中的要素令人愉悦的取舍和安排。



Some arrangements are made by placing figures or objects in certain positions. Others are made by choosing a point of view. You can shift your camera very slightly and make quite a change in composition.
一些安排是放置物体或者轮廓在特定的位置。另一些则是通过选择视角。你可以稍微转换你的相机而使构图有相当的改观。
Some snapshots may turn out to have good composition, but most good pictures are created. How do you create a picture? First learn the guidelines for good composition.
一些快照可能有好的构图,但是大部分好的图片是创作出来的。怎样“创作”一张图片?先让我们学习一下好的构图法则。




After you've learned the guidelines, you'll realize that well-composed pictures often take careful planning and sometimes patient waiting.
一旦学习了这些法则,你将认识到好的构图作品经常需要周密计划,有些情况下还需要耐心等待。
You'll find that the composition guidelines will become part of your thinking when you're looking for pictures, and soon they will become second nature to you.
当你在寻找图片时,你会发现这些构图法则将成为你思考的一部分,并且不久它们将成为你的习惯。
n this program, we'll discuss:
在本教程中,我们将讨论:

Simplicity
简洁
The Rule of Thirds
三分法
Lines
线条
Balance
平衡
Framing
框架
Avoiding Mergers
避免合并




Think of these not as rules but as simple guidelines
把这些看做朴素的指导方针而不是死规定。

Photographic composition is an expression of your natural sense of design. These guidelines will help you sharpen your natural sense of composition and take better pictures.
构图是你构思的直觉表达。这些法则将使你对结构的直觉更敏锐,帮助你拍到更好的图片。




Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition:Simplicity
构图进阶指南:简洁
The first and perhaps the most important guideline is simplicity. Look for ways to give the center of interest in your pictures the most visual attention. One way is to select uncomplicated backgrounds that will not steal attention from your subjects.
第一点,可能也是最重要的一点是简洁。寻找一些方法,使你的图片的兴趣中心点给人以最大程度的视觉吸引力。一个方法就是: 选用简单的背景,不要分散对主体的注意力。



Let's see how we can improve this photo by looking for visual simplicity. First let's decide if we want our center of interest to be the public telephone, the bridge, or the cactus.
我们看一下怎样通过寻找视觉上的简洁化来提高图片的质量。首先,让我们决定一下把谁作为图片的兴趣中心点,是公用电话,是桥,抑或仙人掌?




We chose the cactus as the main subject. And by moving in closer and using the plain sky as the background, we have simplified and improved the appearance of this photograph.
我们选择仙人掌作为主体,把朴素的天空作为背景,再靠近些拍摄,我们就使画面更简洁,并提高了它的表现力。



We're certainly close enough to our subject in both pictures, but the busy background on the left camouflages the seagull. Just change your point of view slightly and, presto, your seagull stands with visual prominence against the blue sky.
在这两张图片中我们的确距离主体够近,但是左图中杂乱的背景把海鸥掩饰了起来。只需稍微改变你的视角, 很快,海鸥在蓝天的映衬下视觉上显得很突出。


Compose your photograph so that your reason for taking the picture is clearly seen. Arrange other parts of the picture area in such a way as to complement what you choose to be the center of interest. Most of us would prefer the picture on the right because the parking lot tends to contradict the feeling of antiquity related to this mission.
对图片进行构图从而使你照相的意图清楚地体现。安排图片上的其它部分作为你选择的兴趣中心点的补充。我们中的大多数更喜欢右图,因为(左图中)停车场和教堂古遗迹的气氛相抵触。



Remember: we're talking about composition simplicity, and here's another decision you'll probably have to make. How much of your subject should you include, and should it be framed horizontally as we have done here?
记住,我们正在谈论构图的简洁,你可能不得不做出另一个决定。你的图中应该包含主体多少?而且就象上面这样横向构图吗?



Or perhaps you'd prefer to frame. your subject in the vertical format, as we've indicated with these frame. lines. The choice is yours.
也许你更喜欢竖向构图,就象我们用框线框出的部分。选择权在你。



So, you can simplify your pictures and strengthen your center of interest by selecting uncomplicated backgrounds, avoiding unrelated subjects, and moving in close. If you want to make your center of interest even more dynamic, place it slightly off center in your frame. as we have done with this young artist.
因此,通过选择简单的背景,避免不相干的物体相互干扰,靠近(主体)等方法,可以使你的图片更简洁,使你的趣味中心点得以加强。如果想让趣味中心点更具有动感,可让它稍微偏离图框的中心位置,就象上图我们对这个小“艺术家”的处理。




Generally, pictures with subjects directly in the center tend to be more static and less interesting than pictures with off-center subject placement.
通常,主体直接处于中心位置的图片,趋向于更加静止,比起主体偏离中心位置的图片,少了些趣味性。

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition: Rule of Thirds
构图进阶指南:三分法
You can use the rule of thirds as a guide in the off-center placement of your subjects. Here's how it works.
可以使用三分法指导我们主体怎样偏离中心位置。下面详细介绍。




Before you snap the picture, imagine your picture area divided into thirds both horizontally and vertically. The intersections of these imaginary lines suggest four options for placing the center of interest for good composition. The option you select depends upon the subject and how you would like that subject to be presented.
拍照之前,假想把你的画面横向和纵向分为三部分。这些假想的分隔线的交叉点为放置趣味中心点提供了好的构图的四个选择。选择依赖于主体和你想把主体放置于那个位置。



We picked the upper-right position for this subject so that we could see the full shadow and most of the tracks that lead to the seagull.
我们选择把主体放置在右上交叉点,这样我们可以看到海鸥的整个阴影和指向海鸥的大部分足迹。



The lighthouse seems well placed in the upper right just because the rest of the scene fits nicely into the format.
灯塔放置在右上点看起来不错,因为景色的其余部分和这种形式配合的恰到好处。相识色影



Here's a case where you have excellent subject control. You can have the model pose anywhere along the walkway. The rule of thirds indicates this placement which also gives the model a definite path to follow within the picture area.
这里有一个主体布置在何处的好例子。你可以让这个模特出现在沿人行道的任何位置。三分法则在图片区域中指定一个位置,模特可以沿着特定路径走到那儿。



You should always consider the path of moving subjects and, generally, leave space in front of them into which they can move.
你可能经常要考虑主体移动的路径,并且,通常还要在他们移动方向的前方留下一定空间。



If you don't, here's what can happen! This jogger looks like she's going to run right out of the picture.
如果不这样做,就是这种效果!图中的慢跑者看起来马上要向右跑出画面。



By placing the subject in the lower-left position, we've used the rule of thirds and given the jogger plenty of room to run within the picture.
我们使用三分法,把主体放置在左下角,给慢跑者在画面中留下大量空间。




Here's another action shot where it's important to leave more space in front of a moving subject than behind it.
这是另一张动态照片。运动主体的前面比后面留有更多空间是很重要的。


You can also apply the rule of thirds guidelines to the placement of the horizon in your photos. Here the center position of the boat and horizon results in a static feeling.
你也可以运用三分法在你的图片中处理地平线的位置。这里船和地平线处于中心位置给人以静止的感觉。



Let's move the horizon to the upper third and the sailboat to the left. Remember, these are the only guidelines. So if you don't like this subject placement, try another.
我们把地平线移到上面三分之一处,帆船移到左边。记住,这只是些法则。所以如果你不喜欢主体的位置,试试另外一个位置。



Like this. We've moved the horizon line to the lower third. In general, place the horizon high or low in your scenics, but rarely in the middle.
就象这样。我们把地平线移到下面三分之一处。通常,把地平线置于你的风景图片的上面或者下面,但是很少放中间。



Just as it's usually best to place horizons off center, it's also best to place verticals off center. For instance, in the picture on the left, the subject is centered, but on the right, the photographer got a more effective photograph by simply changing the viewpoint.
就象我们通常把地平线偏离中心放置,把垂直线放置得偏离中心效果一样好。例如,在左图,主体在中间放置,但在右图,拍摄者通过简单地改变视角使图片的效果更令人印象深刻。

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition: Lines
构图进阶指南:线条
Lines also play an important role in composition. This sculpture has some beautiful lines, but they're obscured by the busy background. Let's simplify this picture by moving our camera viewpoint in close to the base of the sculpture.
线条在构图中也扮演了重要的角色。这个雕塑有许多优美的线条,但是它们在杂乱的背景下显得很不清楚。我们可以靠近雕塑的基座来改变照相机的视角,从而使图片简洁化。



Now we can look up and see the lines against a clear blue sky. The picture on the right is much more dynamic because of the strong diagonal lines.
现在我们可以向上看,线条背衬着干净的蓝天。右图因为强有力的斜线显得更富于动感。




Imagine this view without the diagonal rays of sunlight and you'll probably agree: diagonal lines are dynamic!
想象一下如果没有斜照的日光,画面会是怎么样。由此你可能会同意:斜线就是动感!



You can use diagonals as leading lines to provide a way into the picture. It's a simple and easy path for the eye to follow to the main subject.
你可以使用斜线作为引导线,为进入画面提供一种方法。这是一种把视线指向主体简单又容易的途径。



You can also use repetitive lines to draw viewers' attention to your center of interest.
你也可以使用重复的线条吸引观众去注意趣味中心点。




One of the most common and graceful lines used in composition is called the S curve.
在构图中,一种极普通而优美的线叫做S曲线。



Here's another S curve that forms a diagonal leading line. This picture is also improved with a well-placed center of interest, and the result is a photograph that's easy to look at.
这是另一种S曲线,它形成了一条对角指引线。这张图片也因为趣味中心点被很好的放置而有所改进,结果是,图片很耐看。相识色影

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition:Balance
构图进阶指南:平衡




Here's what we're looking for. The flamingo has relaxed, and his neck now forms a pleasing S curve against a better background. So, the S curve is an attractive shape to look for when you compose a photograph.
这就是我们所要寻找的。 火烈鸟现在很悠闲,它的脖子在一个较好的背景的映衬下形成了一个优美的S曲线。因此,S曲线在构图时是一个很能吸引人的形状。




You can use other simple geometric shapes to help your picture composition. Can you see the triangle you get by connecting imaginary lines between the three nuns? This triangle adds strong visual unity to this picture.
其它简单的几何形状也能帮助你构图。你能看到连接这三个修女形成的一个假象的三角形吗?三角形给你的图片增添了一种强烈的视觉上的和谐。


Notice how many triangles are formed by this couple and their reflections. You can help yourself develop an artistic eye by studying pictures to find the strength of their lines, geometric shapes, and balance.
注意一下这对情侣和他们的倒影组成了多少个三角形。通过观察图片来发现线条、几何形状和平衡的力量,能够培养你一双艺术之眼。



Achieving good balance is another one of our guidelines for better picture composition. Notice how the leaves, the window, and the couple all seem to be in the right place. The camera viewpoint and subject placement were all carefully selected to create this well-balanced photograph.
达到好的平衡是获得好的构图的另一法则之一。注意一下树叶,窗户和这对情侣,他们的位置看起来都恰到好处。要创作这样一张具有好的平衡的图片,相机的视角和主体的位置都要精心选择。



Good balance is simply the arrangement of shapes, colors, or areas of light and dark that complement one another so that the photograph looks well-balanced, not . . .
好的平衡就是形状,颜色或者相互补充的光与影的面积的排列,这样图片看起来就达到好的平衡,而不是...



. . . lopsided like this. Karen looks like she's going to fall right out of the picture due to lack of visible support.
象这一样不平衡。由于缺少视觉上的支撑物,卡伦看起来要向右倒出画面。


Now we've moved our camera viewpoint and have included the much-needed wheel to support our subject. Karen is still off center, but the picture is balanced.
现在我们移动了相机的视角,把支撑主体的必不可少的轮子加进来,卡伦依旧不在中心位置,但是画面平衡了。



Imagine that these two couples are standing at either end of a pair of scales. They are evenly balanced, so this is a classic example of symmetrical balance
想像一下这两对情侣正站在一副天平的两端。他们达到了均匀的平衡,这是一个对称平衡的经典例子。



Here's an example of nonsymmetrical balance. The large single head balances the smaller child on the right. In general this type of balance is more interesting to look at than symmetrical balance.
这有一个非对称平衡的例子。巨大的头和右边的小孩形成平衡。通常,这种形式的平衡比对称平衡更能使人发生兴趣。



For example, this is a balanced photograph, but the subjects can be separated into two vertical pictures-which tends to divide the viewer's attention.
例如,这是一张平衡的图片,但是(两个)主体会分散观众的注意力。可以把它分为两个竖向的图片。



There are usually several ways to arrange or balance your subjects. You may choose the style. on the left because you'd like to convey a feeling of formality-or you may prefer the more relaxed informal pose. They're both well balanced.
通常有几种方法来安排或者平衡你的主体。如果想表达一种正式的感觉,你可以选择左图的风格。否则,你可以选择更加放松自然的姿势。它们都能很好地平衡。

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition: Framing
构图进阶指南:框架
Our fifth guideline for improving photographic composition is framing.
改善构图的第五个法则是框架。



No, this is not what we mean by framing, although the principle is the same.
不,这不是我们所讲的框架的含义,尽管法则是一样的。



What we mean is to frame. the center of interest with objects in the foreground. This can give a picture the feeling of depth it needs to make it more than just another snapshot.
我们所说的框架是指用前景中的物体把兴趣中心点“框”起来。这使一张图片看起来比另一些快照更具所需要的深度感。




Whether or not you use a frame. for a picture will depend on each new subject. What you choose as a frame. for the scene will, of course, vary as well.
一张图片使用框架与否取决于每一个新的主体。当然,使用什么作为场景的框架,也是多种多样。



The Washington Monument on the left is composed in the center without a frame. The picture on the right has a stronger feeling of depth and tells a more complete story because the photographer chose an appropriate foreground to complement the Washington Monument.
左边这张处于图片中心位置的华盛顿纪念碑没有使用框架。右边这张因为摄影师选择了一个适当的前景来作为华盛顿纪念碑的补充,而使图片具有强烈的纵深感,并且讲述了一个更加完整的故事。


The horses and their riders add considerable foreground interest to this scene. The overhanging tree branches complete the frame. and add depth to the subject. When you use people for scale and foreground, make sure they look into the picture area.
马和骑马者给这个场景增添了相当可观的前景兴趣点。上面悬挂的树的分枝形成了框架并给主体增添了深度。当你使用人作为比例尺和前景,要保证他们朝画面里面看。



Both of these interpretations of the Iwo Jima Monument effectively use framing for added dimension and interest. No matter what subjects you choose to photograph, you should avoid mergers.
这两张图片对Iwo Jima纪念碑的阐述,都有效地使用了框架,增添了观察维度和兴趣点。不管在图片中选择什么主体,你都应该避免合并。

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition: Avoiding Mergers
构图进阶指南:避免合并
The merger of this tree with Dave's head is so obvious, you probably think no one could avoid seeing it before snapping the shutter. Remember: we see things in three dimensions, so it's easier than you might guess to focus our eyes on the principal subject only and not see that background at all. Avoiding mergers is our sixth guideline for better composition.
戴夫的头和这棵树明显合并到一起,按下快门前你可能会想没人能避免看到它。 记住:我们是以三维的角度观察事物,因此你很容易将视线聚集在主要的物体上,根本没有看到背景。避免合并是改善构图的第六个法则。



You can be sure the camera always sees mergers, so look for plain backgrounds before you pose your subject. In this case the correction was simple because the two settings were only a few feet apart.
可以肯定的是:照相机总是能看到合并,因此在你的主体摆好姿势之前你要寻找朴素的背景。在这个例子中,因为这两个背景只有几英尺远,就可以简单地进行修正。



This is a fun picture, but when we cut people in half or trim their heads or feet, we've committed a border merger. This is often caused by poor alignment of the photographer's eye in the camera viewfinder. To avoid border mergers, line your eye up squarely behind the viewfinder and adjust the picture format to leave a little space around everyone.
这是一个有趣的图片,但是当我们把人部分分割出来或者修整他们的头和脚,我们才发现犯了边缘合并的错误。这经常是由于相机取景器背后摄影者的眼睛对此做出的可怜的安排。要避免边缘合并,取景器后的那双眼睛要平直向前看,调整画面的格局,在每个人周围都留下一点空间。




Near mergers may not be quite as objectionable, but they can steal attention from your center of interest. Near mergers are objects or lines that are just too close to the principal subject. In this case the ball and umbrella tip are near mergers.
紧密合并可能不会引起极度反感,但是他们能把你的注意力从兴趣中心点引开。紧密合并是指物体或者线条距离主体太近。在这个例子里球和伞尖就是紧密合并。



Let's correct these mergers by using a low angle, and we'll use only one prop for simplicity. Make sure the Frisbee is held far enough away from Karen's face to avoid another near merger. Well, those are the six guidelines for better photographic composition.
让我们来纠正这些合并。使用低角度拍摄,我们只使用一个简单的道具。保证飞盘和卡伦的脸离得足够远避免另一个紧密合并。好了,这就是改善我们构图的第六个法则。

Guidelines for
Better Photographic Composition: Discussion
构图进阶指南:讨论




Now let's look at a few prizewinning photos and see why the judges gave them such high scores. In this picture titled Afternoon Chat, the photographer arranged the subjects in a simple, well-balanced composition. He also made good use of diagonal lines. Remember, of course, that these are only guidelines; so you can bend or even break them and still create fine photographs . . .
现在,让我们看一些获奖的图片,理解一下为什么评委会给它们打高分。这张图片标题是“午后聊天”,摄影者以一种简单,极平衡的构图来安排主体。他也很好地运用了斜线。当然我们要记住,这仅仅是法则,因此你可以遵循它,甚至打破它来创作好的图片。相识色影



. . . like this. The photographer actually strengthened this prizewinner by ignoring a few guidelines and composing this subject in the center of the format. The strength of the subject and the simple black background make this one work.
就象这样。摄影者忽略了一些法则,把主体置于中间位置,竟然使这个获奖人的效果得以加强。主体的力量和简单的黑色背景使之成为一件杰作。




Here's another winner. Why? Well because it's an extremely interesting picture that makes good visual sense, and that's just as important as our list of guidelines. The chances are you'll use only a few guidelines at a time. For instance, this picture of a frog is an excellent example of a close-up. It makes good use of simplicity and, despite its centrally placed horizon, it has viewer impact.
这是另一幅获奖作品。为什么?因为它产生了很好的视觉感,是张极其有趣的图片。这和我们列出的法则一样重要。你一次也许只需用到某几条法则。例如,这张青蛙的图片是一个特写的极佳例子。它很好的运用了简洁的法则,尽管他的水平线在中央放置,它仍具有视觉冲击力。相识色影




碰撞-又是一张。这里面有令人难以捕捉的人类情趣。因此,做一个机会主义者,捕捉这些飞逝而过的瞬间,即使你忘了一些法则。拍完你可以做些修正。例如,你可以裁剪或者放大你的图片的某一部分,就象我们用线裁取的那样。


This picture is cropped to a square format. Is that really the way you'd like it? To see if you'd like to change its proportions, hold your hands out in front of you and try cropping this as a vertical. You've probably seen artists do this. Now try a horizontal cropping. This is a good way to look at pictures, improve them, and develop your photographic eye.
这张图裁切不正成了方格式。这真是我们喜欢的方式吗?如果你愿意改变它的比例,伸出手在你面前,试着把它裁成竖格式。你可能见过艺术家这样做。现在试着再做一个横向的裁剪。看图,改善它们,培养你照相的眼睛,这是一个好方法。



Here's a simple cropping guideline. Include the portions of your subject that you feel are most interesting and important. For instance, you may like this portrait of Pat in a square format, or cropped to a horizontal.
这是个简单的裁剪法则。把主体中你认为最重要和最令人感兴趣的部分包含进来。例如,你喜欢帕特的肖像为方格式,或者裁成横幅。



However, many people prefer portraits of individuals that are cropped vertically. The subjects seem to fit better. The choice, of course, is yours.
然而,许多人喜欢裁成竖幅的个人肖像。主体看起来更合适。当然,选择权在你。

What Do You Think?
你认为怎样?



Here's a photograph that has simplicity and a strong center of interest. The photographer composed it with plenty of extra space around the subject to permit a variety of print croppings. How would you crop this picture-horizontal or vertical? And where would you place the center of interest?
这里有幅图片。简洁,并且有一个很强的兴趣中心点。摄影者构图时在主体周围留下大量的额外空间,以便出版时有多种裁剪可能。怎样横向或竖向裁剪这幅图片?在那儿放置兴趣中心点?



Do the flags contribute to the composition of this picture? Are those flags really needed? To find out, hold a pencil up in front of you and block out the flaps. Can you explain why the flags help or hinder good composition?
这些旗真的需要吗?要寻找答案,拿根铅笔在面前屏蔽掉这些旗。你能解释为什么这些旗帮助或者损害了好的构图吗?



Which of these views do you prefer? Can you explain why?
这两幅图你喜欢那一个?你能解释为什么吗?
Can you explain the compositional strength or weaknesses of these next three photos? Use some of the guidelines we've mentioned and add some of your own reactions to these photographs.
你能说出下面这三幅图构图的优点或者缺点吗?使用我们说过的这些法则,对这些图做出你自己的评判。
(1)


(2)

(3)

You can use your talents in photographic composition in many different ways. Now it's your turn.
你可以以多种不同的方式在摄影构图上发挥你的才能。
好了,现在看你的了。



[本日志由 cofavor 于 2012-10-25 02:53 PM 编辑]
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